Sunday, October 2, 2016

Psalm 1 Verse 6 - Rising up in judgment

Hans Memling: The Last Judgement
Hans Melling, 

Ideo non resurgent impii in iudicio, neque peccatores in consilio iustorum                
Ideo non consurgent impii in iudicio, neque peccatores in concilio iustorum.
Propterea non resurgunt impii in iudicio, neque peccatores in congregatione iustorum.
διὰ τοῦτο οὐκ ἀναστήσονται ἀσεβεῖς ἐν κρίσει οὐδὲ ἁμαρτωλοὶ ἐν βουλῇ δικαίων

Ideo (therefore) non (not) resurgent (they shall rise up) impii (the wicked) in iudicio (in judgment), neque (neither/nor) peccatores (sinners) in consilio (in the council) iustorum (of the just).

ideo, adv., therefore, on that account.
resurgo, surrexi, surrectum, ere 3,  rise again; to rise, rise up, stand, i.e., to prevail, triumph.
justus, a, um just; a just man, the just.

Therefore the wicked shall not rise again in judgment: nor sinners in the council of the just.
Therefore the ungodly shall not rise in judgment, nor sinners in the counsel of the just.
Therefore the wicked shall not stand firm in the judgment, nor sinners in the assembly of the just.
Therefore the wicked will not stand in the judgment, nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous;
Therefore the ungodly shall not be able to stand in the judgement, neither the sinners in the congregation of the righteous.
Not for the wicked, when judgement comes, to rise up and plead their cause; sinners will have no part in the reunion of the just. 
When the wicked are judged they shall not stand, nor find room among those who are just;

‘Resurgent in judicio’ has an obvious eschatological sense here, of the wicked not enjoying the resurrection at the Last Judgement.  Accordingly, the neo-Vulgate’s change of resurgo  to consurgo seems an unfortunate choice.  

Cassiodorus explains that the phrase 'rising again for judgment' means that:
 the individual renders an account for his deeds, they are rightly said not to rise again for judgment, for God’s sentence has already condemned them beyond doubt
Or to draw on St Liguori's rather pithier summary on the verse:
the wicked will not rise again to be judged because they are already condemned to punishment 
St Jerome argues that the psalms points us to three categories of people.  On the one side we have the outright wicked; at the other the perfect man, Christ and the saints.  In the middle though, stands the sinner, a quasi-atheist for a time, who will be judged:
 In the Gospel according to John, we read: He who believes in me is not judged; but he who does not believe in me is already judged…Let us reflect upon the one who stands between the believer and the non-believer, the one that is to be judged.  Now he who believes will not be judged; he who believes according to truth does not sin; he who has true faith does not sin.  Actually, when we commit sin, it is because our mind is wavering in faith.  When we are giving way to anger, when we are detracting from the reputation of another, when we are committing murder, when we are yielding to fornication, just where then is our faith?...Who then is to be judged?  The one who indeed believes and yet yields to sin; he who has goodness, but has evil too; he who performs good acts at the time when he believes, but commits sin when his faith is weak…. 
Cassiodorus builds on this idea, pointing to the grace of confession:
The wicked are those who with harshness of mind utterly refuse to confess the holy Trinity, who do not consent to obey the rules of the Old and New Testaments, or who in Paul’s words profess God in words, but in their works deny him.  They do not rise in judgment because they have already been condemned through their unbelief…
Sinners are those who proclaim themselves Christians, but are subject to lesser sins.  To them is addressed the Lord’s prayer that they deliver themselves from evils.  But the wicked are those who do not know their maker and are polluted by various sins, for example blasphemers, those unwilling to repent, worshippers of idols, and persons fast-bound to the chief vices.  
So there are two classes of sinners: the first, who remain in their sins without making any placating satisfaction, and the second, those whose sins are forgiven through the grace of confession...Among these are the saints, because no man is without sin…

And for the final post in this series, continue on here.  

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