Saturday, January 11, 2014

Psalm 6/6: Verses 7-10



The final section of Psalm 6 deals with our relationship to our enemies: on the one hand, we must do battle with the world, the devil and the flesh; yet on the other, we must pray for the conversion of all souls, even those who have hurt us and led us astray.  

7.
V
Turbátus est a furóre óculus meus : *  inveterávi inter omnes inimícos meos. 
NV
Turbatus est a maerore oculus meus, inveteravi inter omnes inimicos meos.
JH
Caligauit prae amaritudine oculus meus; consumtus sum ab uniuersis hostibus meis.
ἐταράχθη ἀπὸ θυμοῦ ὁ ὀφθαλμός μου ἐπαλαιώθην ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς ἐχθροῖς μου

turbo, avi, atum, are, to trouble, disturb, dismay, throw into disorder or confusion
furor, oris, m.  rage, wrath, fury, indignation; grief, anger, vexation
oculus, i, the eye.. It is often used in a fig. sense
invetero, avi, atum, are (in and vetus), (1) to grow old, become old  (2) to be enfeebled, fail in strength.
omnis, e, all, each, every; subst., all men, all things, everything
inimicus, i, m. (in and amicus), a foe, enemy


DR
My eye is troubled through indignation: I have grown old amongst all my enemies.
Brenton
Mine eye is troubled because of my wrath; I am worn out because of all my enemies.
Cover
My beauty is gone for very trouble, and worn away because of all mine enemies.
Knox
Grief has dimmed my eyes, faded their lustre now, so many are the adversaries that surround me.

Chrysostom comments here that in speaking of enemies, we should recall that it is not other people (the world) that we must do battle with, but powers and principalities (the devil).  It is a theme that is often alluded to in the Monday Benedictine Office in which this psalm appears at Prime, in the context of Our Lord's temptation in the desert.

St Alphonus Liguouri adds the third element to the mix, commenting that:
"I have conceived great indignation against myself when considering the deformity of my sins, and when seeing myself growing old in the midst of my enemies, which are my vices and my bad habits."
8.
V/NV
Discédite a me, omnes, qui operámini iniquitátem : *  quóniam exaudívit Dóminus vocem fletus mei.
JH
Recedite a me, omnes qui operamini iniquitatem; quia audiuit Dominus uocem fletus mei.
ἀπόστητε ἀπ' ἐμοῦ πάντες οἱ ἐργαζόμενοι τὴν ἀνομίαν ὅτι εἰσήκουσεν κύριος τῆς φωνῆς τοῦ κλαυθμοῦ μου


discedo, cessi, cessum, ere 3,  to go away, depart;  to wander, deviate or swerve from
omnis, e, all, each, every; subst., all men, all things, everything
operor, atus sum, are (opus), to work, do.
lniquitas, atis, /. (iniquus), iniquity, injustice, sin.
quoniam, conj.,  for, because, since,seeing that, whereas
exaudio, ivi, Itum, ire, to hear, hearken to, listen to, give heed to; to regard, answer, granted
vox, vocis,  the voice of a person, or, the sound of an instrument, etc  vox Domini, the voice of the Lord, i.e., thunder. 
fletus, us, m.  a weeping, bewailing


DR
Depart from me, all you workers of iniquity: for the Lord has heard the voice of my weeping.
Brenton
Depart from me, all ye that work iniquity; for the Lord has heard the voice of my weeping.
MD
Depart from me, all ye evil-doers, for the Lord hath heard my tearful cry.
Cover
Away from me, all ye that work vanity; for the Lord hath heard the voice of my weeping.

There are two different ideas that can be taken out of this verse, reflected in the various traditional commentaries on it. Firstly, at the individual level the speaker attests to the operation of God's grace: his prayers have been heard, and the enemy will be repelled.  But secondly, Our Lord cites it to foreshadow the separation of the wheat from the chaff, the good from the evil when it comes to judgment.

In Matthew 7:21-23 he says: "Not every one who says to me, `Lord, Lord,' shall enter the kingdom of heaven, but he who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. On that day many will say to me, `Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in your name, and cast out demons in your name, and do many mighty works in your name?'  And then will I declare to them, `I never knew you; depart from me, you evildoers."  In Matthew 25:31-43, it points to the separation out of those who fail to do the corporal works of mercy.  And in St Luke (13:23-27) the citation is used int he context of the narrow gate to heaven.

9
V/NV
 Exaudívit Dóminus deprecatiónem meam, *  Dóminus oratiónem meam suscépit.
JH
Audiuit Dominus deprecationem meam; Dominus orationem meam suscipiet.
εἰσήκουσεν κύριος τῆς δεήσεώς μου κύριος τὴν προσευχήν μου προσεδέξατο


exaudio, ivi, itum, ire, to hear, hearken to, listen to, give heed to; to regard, answer
deprecatio, onis,  prayer, supplication, entreaty.
suscipio, cepi, ceptum, ere 3 to guard, protect, uphold, support; to receive, accept ; to seize.
oratio, onis,  prayer, supplication.


DR
The Lord has heard my supplication: the Lord has received my prayer.
Brenton
The Lord has hearkened to my petition; the Lord has accepted my prayer.
Cover
The Lord hath heard my petition; the Lord will receive my prayer.
Knox
Here was a prayer divinely heard, a boon divinely granted. 

The psalmist repeats that his prayer has been heard three times, a repetition St Augustine suggests reflects his great joy:
"For they that rejoice are wont so to speak, as that it is not enough for them to declare once for all the object of their joy. This is the fruit of that groaning in which there is labour, and those tears with which the couch is washed, and bed drenched: for, he that sows in tears, shall reap in joy: and, blessed are they that mourn, for they shall be comforted."
But the repetition also serves to reinforce the idea that we must be persistent in prayer, for asking for things from God, provided they are proper things, is in itself an offering to him, as Cassiodorus explains:
"Supplication consists of frequent, devoted prayer; it is unique in its outstanding aptness, and it frequently appeases by its insistence.  By received he wishes to understand "taken up," as if something had been accepted by His hands.  Observe too the great and secret joy which makes him say that his prayer has both been heard by God's ears and received like some offering; for men who rejoice usually seek the same end in different ways, and this makes them exult with great vehemence..."

10
V/
NV
Erubéscant, et conturbéntur veheménter omnes inimíci mei : * convertántur et erubéscant valde velóciter.
JH
Confundantur et conturbentur uehementer omnes inimici mei: reuertantur et confundantur subito.
αἰσχυνθείησαν καὶ ταραχθείησαν σφόδρα πάντες οἱ ἐχθροί μου ἀποστραφείησαν καὶ καταισχυνθείησαν σφόδρα διὰ τάχους

erubesco, rubui, ere 3, to redden or blush with shame, to feel ashamed
conturbo, avi, atum, are, confuse, disturb, derange, disorder, confound  to trouble, disquiet, discomfit, dismay
vehementer, greatly, exceedingly, very much.
velociter,  swiftly, quickly, speedily, rapidly
inimicus, i, m. (in and amicus), a foe, enemy
converto, verti, versum, ere 3, in general, to turn, change, alter, bring back; L: Aug – conversion and repentance


DR
Let all my enemies be ashamed, and be very much troubled: let them be turned back, and be ashamed very speedily.
Brenton
Let all mine enemies be put to shame and sore troubled: let them be turned back and grievously put to shame speedily.
MD
Let my enemies be put to shame and sorely frightened: let them blush for shame and flee in haste.
RSV
All my enemies shall be ashamed and sorely troubled; they shall turn back, and be put to shame in a moment.
Cover
All mine enemies shall be confounded, and sore vexed; they shall be turned back, and put to shame suddenly.
Knox
All my enemies will be abashed and terrified; taken aback, all in a moment, and put to shame.

These phrases, calling for the defeat and conversion of our enemies, are a recurring motif in the Benedictine Office of Monday.  The psalms of Monday invite us, first and foremost, to consider our own need for conversion and renewal in Christ.  But the immediate impact of our own conversion must surely be concern for the fate of our souls, the impetus for mission.  As Cassiodorus puts it:
"Notice too that once the penitent is freed of his sins and obedient to the Church's rules, he then in holy awareness prays for the conversion of his enemies, that his enemies in the flesh  may return to God's grace as he himself has gained pardon.  When he says: Let them be ashamed, he wants them to be enlightened by such contrition as to be ashamed of their previous acts, and to realise that the deeds which they long considered beneficial are wicked...Let them be turned back, so that they are not allowed to go where they seek, but on retracing their steps may be delivered from the pit of hell..."

Psalm 6 (Prime Monday): Domine ne in furore tuo arguas me

Vulgate
Douay-Rheims
Magistro chori. Fidibus. Super octavam. PSALMUS. David.
Unto the end, in verses, a psalm for David, for the octave.
Dómine, ne in furóre tuo árguas me, * neque in ira tua corrípias me.
O Lord, rebuke me not in your indignation, nor chastise me in your wrath.
2  Miserére mei, Dómine, quóniam infírmus sum : * sana me, Dómine, quóniam conturbáta sunt ossa mea.
Have mercy on me, O Lord, for I am weak: heal me, O Lord, for my bones are troubled.
3  Et ánima mea turbáta est valde : * sed tu, Dómine, úsquequo?
And my soul is troubled exceedingly: but you, O Lord, how long?  
4  Convértere, Dómine, et éripe ánimam meam : * salvum me fac propter misericórdiam tuam.
Turn to me, O Lord, and deliver my soul: O save me for your mercy's sake.
5.  Quóniam non est in morte qui memor sit tui : * in inférno autem quis confitébitur tibi?
For there is no one in death that is mindful of you: and who shall confess to you in hell?
6  Laborávi in gémitu meo, lavábo per síngulas noctes lectum meum : * lácrimis meis stratum meum rigábo.
I have laboured in my groanings, every night I will wash my bed: I will water my couch with my tears
7  Turbátus est a furóre óculus meus : * inveterávi inter omnes inimícos meos.
My eye is troubled through indignation: I have grown old amongst all my enemies.
8  Discédite a me, omnes, qui operámini iniquitátem : *  quóniam exaudívit Dóminus vocem fletus mei.
Depart from me, all you workers of iniquity: for the Lord has heard the voice of my weeping.
9  Exaudívit Dóminus deprecatiónem meam, *  Dóminus oratiónem meam suscépit.
The Lord has heard my supplication: the Lord has received my prayer.
10  Erubéscant, et conturbéntur veheménter omnes inimíci mei : * convertántur et erubéscant valde velóciter.
Let all my enemies be ashamed, and be very much troubled: let them be turned back, and be ashamed very speedily.

If you would like to read about the next psalm of Prime (Psalm 7 for Tuesday), continue on here.

Alternatively, for the next of the Seven Penitential Psalms, continue on here for an Introduction to Psalm 31.

2 comments:

  1. Thank you, for this beautiful and highly educative blog, Kate.

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  2. I am learning so much from this - thank you!

    ReplyDelete