Thursday, December 1, 2011

Psalm 137: Latin study hints Part B

By way of a tag to the mini-series on Psalm 137, some materials to help you with your Latin studies.


If you are keeping up with the Simplicissimus Reading Latin Course (see link to the materials in the sidebar), you will hopefully have reached unit 8, which deals with the present indicative perfect tense ('I have _') . One thing to look out for in the Vulgate are contracted forms of the perfect tense (ie dropping a letter or two), of which there are a couple of examples in this psalm. There is no difference in meaning in these cases.

I’ve bolded the examples of the perfect to look out for in Psalm 137:

1. Confitébor tibi, Dómine, in toto corde meo: * quóniam audísti [audio, contracted form] verba oris mei.
2. In conspéctu Angelórum psallam tibi: * adorábo ad templum sanctum tuum, et confitébor nómini tuo.
3. Super misericórdia tua, et veritáte tua: * quóniam magnificásti [magnifico, contracted form] super omne, nomen sanctum tuum.
4. In quacúmque die invocávero te, exáudi [exaudio] me: * multiplicábis in ánima mea virtútem.
5 Confiteántur tibi, Dómine, omnes reges terræ: * quia audiérunt [contracted] ómnia verba oris tui.
6. Et cantent in viis Dómini: * quóniam magna est glória Dómini.
7. Quóniam excélsus Dóminus, et humília réspicit: * et alta a longe cognóscit.
8. Si ambulávero in médio tribulatiónis, vivificábis me: * et super iram inimicórum meórum extendísti [extendo] manum tuam, et salvum me fecit déxtera tua.
9. Dóminus retríbuet pro me: * Dómine, misericórdia tua in sæculum: ópera mánuum tuárum ne despícias.

Looking up words in the dictionary

And this seems a good point at which to point to a very handy online dictionary tool.

As you may have noticed, Latin words, especially (but not exclusively) verbs, sometimes change form in uses such that it is sometimes hard to recognize the root word, or find it in a dictionary.

A quick solution to this problem is the excellent Perseus Latin Headword Search Tool.
It allows you to type in any word, and searches for it in a dictionary (generally Lewis and Short). If the word is in its most common form, it will take you to straight to the dictionary entry. But if it is inflected, it gives you the option of using the ‘word study tool’: click on the word and it will parse the word for you.

So to use an example from the list above, type in audio, and you get a short definition (to hear), a link to the full dictionary entry, and some frequency statistics t tell you how common a verb it is.

Type in audierunt, however, and you will be told your search turned up no results, but you can try the word study tool. Do that, and it will link you to ‘audio’ and tell you that audierunt is [a] verb 3rd [person] pl [plural] perf[ect] ind[icative] act[ive].

It does require you to know a little grammar, but hopefully you will have picked that up from your reading of Simplicissimus in any case…


And finally, here is the complete vocab list for Psalm 137, in alphabetical order:

adoro, avi, atum, are, to worship, adore
altus deep (=deceitful), high (=proud)
ambulo, avi, atum, are to walk; the manner in which one orders one's life;
angelus, i, angel, spirit, messenger.
anima, ae, f soul
audio, ivi or li, Itum, ire to hear; to hear gladly; sound forth, utter, announce; hear favorably, to grant,
canto, avi, atum, are to sing, to praise in song
cognosco, gnovi, gnitum, ere 3, to know, see, learn, perceive, be come acquainted with.
confiteor, fessus sum, eri 2 to praise, give thanks; to confess, acknowledge one's guilt.
conspectus, us, m. sight, presence;
cor, cordis, n., the heart, regarded as the seat of the faculties, feelings, emotions, passions; the mind, the soul.
despicio, spexi, spectum, ere 3 to look away from, not to look at, to slight; to despise; to look down upon
dexter, tera, terum; the right hand.
dies, ei, m. and /.; fem. a day, the natural day
exaudio, ivi, Itum, ire, to hear, hearken to, listen to, give heed to; to regard, answer.
excelsus, a, um high, august, sublime, towering aloft ; uplifted; heights, high places; billows, high waves
extendo, tendi, tentum, ere 3, to stretch out or forth; to extend, prolong, protract, continue;
gloria, ae, /. glory, honor, majesty
humilia, the lowly, God's people and their affairs.
inimicus, i, m., a foe, enemy
invoco, avi, atum, are, to invoke, call upon (God); to put trust in
ira, ae, f., anger, wrath
longe, adv. far off, at a distance; as a substantive with a and de, afar off, from afar.
magnifico, avi, atum, are to praise, glorify, extol, magnify
magnus, a, um, great, mighty; elders
manus, us, f, the hand
medius, a, um in the middle, midst
misericordia, ae,, mercy, kindness, favor, compassion, loving-kindness.
multiplico, avi, atum, are to multiply, increase; to grow, flourish
nomen, mis, n. name; God himself; the perfections of God, His glory, majesty, wisdom, power, goodness
omnis, e, all, each, every; subst., all men, all things, everything
opus, eris, n., work.
os, oris, n., the mouth.
pro, prep, with abl., for; instead of, in lieu of; because of, on account of
psallo, ere 3 to sing to the accompaniment of a stringed instrument,; to sing the praises of God.
quacumque - by whatever way, wherever, wheresoever
quoniam, conj., for, because, since, seeing that, whereas.
respicio, spexi, spectum, ere 3 to look upon, behold, consider; take thought for, heed, have regard to;
retribuo, tribui, tributum, ere 3, to repay, requite, reward, recompense, render; give back, return; make requital for
rex, regis, m. a king, ruler, lawgiver
saeculum, i, n., a lifetime, generation, age; an indefinite period of time; forever, eternity; from of old, i.e., in ages past.
salvum facere, to save, keep safe, preserve from harm..
sanctus, a, um, holy, holy person
super +acc=above, upon, over, in, on;+abl= about, concerning; with, on, upon, for, because of.
templum, i, n. the Sanctuary or new Tabernacle on Mount Sion; a temple-like structure; heaven; a palace.
terra, ae, f. (1) the earth, in both a lit. and a fig. sense. (a) orbis terrae, the world. (2) a country, esp. the Land of Israel
totus a um, the whole, entire
tribulatio, onis, f. , trouble, distress, anguish, affliction, tribulation
verbum, i, n.,word, command, edict, also a promise; saying, speech; Law, the Eternal Son.
veritas, atis, truth. grace, kindness ,goodness, fidelity to promises, Faithfulness
via, ae, a way, road, path, street. God's way, God's policy, way of life
virtus, utis, f strength, power, might; an army, host; the angels.; the heavenly bodies, the sun, moon, and stars
vivifico, avi, atum, are to quicken, give life to, vivify.

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