Tuesday, April 8, 2014

Introduction to Psalm 129 as a penitential psalm pt 2

Belles Heures of Jean de France,
duc de Berry, folio 71v*

Today, the second part of my introduction to the sixth of the penitential psalms, Psalm 129.

I said in the first part of this introduction to Psalm 129 that its essential theme is God’s willingness to forgive even the gravest sins, and I want to provide some material that develops that theme a little more today.

God is always willing to forgive

The idea that there are some sins that cannot be forgiven, or that there is a limit to the number of times a particular sin can be forgiven is one of those recurrent heresies that still gains traction in our time.

One even hears articulated the idea that repenting at times of personal disaster, even on the deathbed, is somehow wrong or too late - somehow a cowardly act going contrary to how one has lived one's life.

This is a horrendous error, for the very opposite is true!

Bad times are exactly when we should turn back to God.  It takes courage to renounce a lifetime of error.  And it takes a gift of a great grace from God.

Indeed, Pope St Leo the Great used this psalm to instruct a bishop that absolution should not be withheld from those who express penitence, no matter what the circumstance, or what doubts there may be around the case:

“...because we cannot place limits to God’s mercy nor fix times for Him with whom true conversion suffers no delay of forgiveness, as says God’s Spirit by the prophet, “when thou hast turned and lamented, then shalt thou be saved;” and elsewhere, “Declare thou thy iniquities beforehand, that thou may’st be justified ;” and again, “For with the Lord there is mercy, and with Him is plenteous redemption.” And so in dispensing God’s gifts we must not be hard, nor neglect the tears and groans of self-accusers, seeing that we believe the very feeling of penitence springs from the inspiration of God, as says the Apostle, “lest perchance God will give them repentance that they may recover themselves from the snares of the devil, by whom they are held captive at his will..”

In such cases there may well be temporal punishment left to be worked off either in this world or in purgatory.  But as the psalm sets out, redemption will come, as surely as the dawn comes after the night.

Reverent awe

And God's merciful forgiveness, expressed in verses 3-4, should in turn invoke in us a sense of reverent awe, as Pope Benedict XVI has pointed out:

“It is significant that reverent awe, a sentiment in which respect and love are mingled, is not born from punishment but from forgiveness. Rather than sparking his anger, God's generous and disarming magnanimity must kindle in us a holy reverence. Indeed, God is not an inexorable sovereign who condemns the guilty but a loving father whom we must love, not for fear of punishment, but for his kindness, quick to forgive.”

God’s forgiveness brings additional gifts

Fresco of the annunciation to St Zachariah,
Pope Benedict XVI concluded his catechesis on this psalm with some commentary from St Ambrose on the benefits that can flow from absolution from our sins, and I commend it to you also:

“Let us choose St Ambrose's words: in his writings he often recalled the reasons that motivated him to invoke pardon from God. "We have a good Lord who wants to forgive everyone", he recalled in his Treatise on Penance, and he added: "If you want to be justified, confess your fault: a humble confession of sins untangles the knot of faults.... You see with what hope of forgiveness you are impelled to make your confession" (2, 6, 40-41: Sancti Ambrosii Episcopi Mediolanensis Opera [SAEMO], XVII, Milan-Rome, 1982, p. 253). In the Exposition of the Gospel according to Luke, repeating the same invitation, the Bishop of Milan expressed his wonder at the gifts that God added to his forgiveness: "You see how good God is and ready to pardon sins: not only does he give back everything he had taken away, but he also grants unhoped for gifts". Zechariah, John the Baptist's father, lost the ability to speak because he did not believe the angel, but subsequently, in pardoning him, God granted him the gift of prophecy in the hymn of the Benedictus: "The one who could not speak now prophesies", St Ambrose said, adding that "it is one of the greatest graces of the Lord, that those who have denied him should confess belief in him. Therefore, no one should lose trust, no one should despair of the divine reward, even if previous sins cause him remorse. God can change his opinion if you can make amends for your sin" (2, 33: SAEMO, XI, Milan-Rome, 1978, p. 175).”

I've written notes on all of the verses of Psalm 129, which you can find in a series starting here.  

Alternatively, you can jump onwards to the last of the Penitential Psalms, Psalm 142.

Psalm 129 (130) – De Profundis

Canticum graduum.
Canticum graduum.
De profúndis clamávi ad te, Dómine: * Dómine, exáudi vocem meam :
Out of the depths I have cried to you, O Lord:
2  Fiant aures tuæ intendéntes: * in vocem deprecatiónis meæ.
2 Lord, hear my voice. Let your ears be attentive to the voice of my supplication.
3  Si iniquitátes observáveris, Dómine: * Dómine, quis sustinébit?
3 If you, O Lord, will mark iniquities: Lord, who shall stand it.
4  Quia apud te propitiátio est: * et propter legem tuam sustínui te, Dómine.
4 For with you there is merciful forgiveness: and by reason of your law, I have waited for you, O Lord.
5  Sustinuit ánima mea in verbo ejus: * sperávit ánima mea in Dómino.
My soul has relied on his word: 5 My soul has hoped in the Lord.
6  A custódia matutína usque ad noctem: * speret Israël in Dómino.
6 From the morning watch even until night, let Israel hope in the Lord.
7  Quia apud Dóminum misericórdia: * et copiósa apud eum redémptio.
7 Because with the Lord there is mercy: and with him plentiful redemption.
8  Et ipse rédimet Israël: * ex ómnibus iniquitátibus ejus.
8 And he shall redeem Israel from all his iniquities

*Belles Heures of Jean de France, duc de Berry, 1405–1408/9. Herman, Paul, and Jean de Limbourg (Franco-Netherlandish, active in France by 1399–1416). French; Made in Paris. Ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum; 9 3/8 x 6 5/8 in. (23.8 x 16.8 cm). The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, The Cloisters Collection, 1954 (54.1.1).

1 comment:

  1. Amen! The gift of final repentance is surely a gift from God, no matter how much those around the penitent doubt its sincerity.